Annual Blood Examination Rate. Calculated as (number of slides examined/population) x 100. WHO recommendation for malarious areas is that the number of slides examined per month should equal at least 1% of the population.
A decrease in number of red blood cells and/or quantity of hemoglobin. Malaria causes anemia through rupture of red blood cells. The anemia caused may be extreme. Pallor may be visible in the patient.
A cage, generally made of cloth, that is baited with an animal such as a cow, goat, etc. Mosquitoes are collected in this trap in order to compare those biting domestic animals with those in local houses.
A very serious complication of malaria, caused by the P. falciparum strain of the parasite, which involves an infection of the very small capillaries that flow through the tissues of the brain. It has a fatality rate of 15% or more, even when treated.
Malaria acquired from the mother at birth.
A word meaning during the daytime. The diurnal resting places of mosquitoes, especially newly-fed females, may be important in malaria control.
The process of removing something on a temporary or semi-permanent basis.
The process of removing something permanently.
A red blood cell.
A trap constructed to capture mosquitoes that are exiting a house or structure. Exit traps are often used in studies that compare the tendency of mosquitoes to rest indoors after feeding versus to fly outside after feeding.
The sexual reproductive stage of the malaria parasite. Gametocytes circulate in the blood stream, are picked up by the mosquito, undergo sexual reproduction in the midgut of the mosquito, and attach to the mosquito's midgut.
The percentage of people in an area who carry gametocytes. The smaller the gametocyte rate of an area, the fewer infective humans are available for mosquitoes, and the less likely that transmission is to occur.
A stage of malaria parasites found in liver cells. After sporozoites invade liver cells, some develop into latent forms called hypnozoites. They become active months or years later, producing a recurrent malaria attack.
Blood glucose less than normal. Glucose levels of 40 and below constitute severe hypoglycemia, a life-threatening emergency. Hypoglycemia is common in malaria, as malaria parasitized red blood cells use glucose 75 times faster than uninfected cells.
A case of malaria that is brought into an area by someone who has become infected somewhere else, either a tourist or an immigrant.
When the disease is acquired artificially (e.g. blood transfusion, dirty syringes, or malariotherapy).
Malaria acquired by mosquito transmission from an imported case in an area where malaria is not a regular occurrence.
Infant parasite rate
The percentage of infants below one year old who show parasites in their blood films. If the infant parasite rate is zero for three consecutive years in a locality, this is regarded as absence of local transmission, provided that the survey is done every year and enough slides have been examined.
The average lifespan of a mosquito. It is extremely important in malaria control because if the mosquito lives a long time, it will be able to take several blood meals, and will have a higher chance of biting a human who has malaria parasites.
A generalized feeling of being sick, ill, or not healthy, varying from mild to severe in intensity. It may be the lone clinical manifestation of malaria, or may accompany other signs and symptoms, such as fever, headache, or nausea.
A decrease in blood pressure that occurs when an individual rises from a seated or lying position. It is normal if the change is small, but if large and accompanied by faintness, light-headedness, dizziness, or increased pulse, something may be wrong. It is a common symptom in patients with malaria infections.
A sudden attack or increase in intensity of a symptom, usually occurring in intervals. Malaria is classically described as producing fever paroxysms; sudden severe temperature elevations accompanied by profuse sweating. Paroxysms occurring at 48-hr intervals are typical of Plasmodium vivax infection, particularly in semi-immune persons.
Proportional case rate
The number of cases diagnosed as clinical malaria for every 100 patients attending hospitals and dispensaries.
A repeated attack of malaria (short term relapse or delayed), due to the survival of malaria parasites in red blood cells.
A repeated attack weeks, months, or occasionally years, after initial malaria infection, also called a long-term relapse. Usually occurs because of a re-infection of red blood cells from malaria parasites that persisted in liver cells.
A recurrence of the disease after it had been cured.
Malaria that is not responsive to residual treatment. The cause of the lack of response to residual treatment is usually defined to be factors other than physiological insecticide resistance.
Treatment of houses, animal sheds, and other buildings where people or animals spend nighttime hours with insecticide that has residual efficacy. The goal of residual treatment is to block transmission by stopping human-vector contact.
An enlarged spleen. A common finding in malaria patients that sometimes can be detected by physical examination. May occur in otherwise asymptomatic patients and is of use in conducting malaria surveys of a community.
The infective stage of the malaria parasite that is passed to the human host from the salivary glands of the mosquito.
The optimal temperature for development of the malaria parasites is between 77 oF and 86oF.
ringing sound in the ears. It is a common side effect of quinine treatment.
Malaria Foundation International