Terms You Should Know About Millennium Goals

Aid Untying

A movement to recommend that donors stop putting restrictions on their donations. Instead, it supports a free market, giving unrestricted access to those who can compete best on price, quality and service.


Short for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, the final stage of HIV. It is a huge problem in places like Africa where the healthcare to fight the disease is not available. AIDS has no cure and is passed by blood, sexually, or by the sharing or contaminated needles.

Budgetary Assistance or Budget Support

A method of aid where funds are provided for programs that focus on growth and poverty reduction, and transform institutions, or funds are provided to a partner government to spend using its own financial management and accountability systems.

Child Mortality

When a child dies in the first 5 years of life. This is a problem in very poor countries where the proper healthcare is not available

Civil Society Organizations

All organizations which are in the "social space" between the family and the State who come together to work for common interests through collective action. It includes volunteer groups, PTAs, senior citizens groups, sports clubs, arts and culture groups, religious groups, workers clubs and trade unions, non-profit think-tanks and "issue-based" activist groups.

Debt Relief

Programs including cancellation, rescheduling, refinancing or re-organization which help to work through a person’s debt.

Development Assistance Committee (DAC)

A forum for consultation among 22 donor countries, including much of Western Europe, the U.S., Japan, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and the European Commission on how to increase the level and effectiveness of aid flows to all aid recipient countries.


All of the external factors that influence the lives and well-being of people and animals.


A state in which different groups of people have identical rights.

European Community (EC)

The 15 member states and the common institutions, notably the European Commission, cooperating on a range of economic and other issues dealing with supranational integration.

European Development Fund

The main route through which EC funds committed to the countries of Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific under the Cotonou Convention are channeled.

European Union

Created by the 1992 Treaty of Maastricht, now consists of 27 European countries which have developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states, allowing for unrestricted movement of people, goods and services.

Financial Aid

A grant or loan of money which is the subject of a formal agreement with the recipient government or institution.


The process by which the people of the world are united into a single society, due to the growing independence and interconnectedness of the modern world through increased flows of goods, services, capital, people and information.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

The total value of goods and services produced within a country.

Gross National Income

Comprises the total value of goods and services produced within a country (i.e. its GDP), together with its income received from other countries (notably interest and dividends), minus similar payments made to other countries.

G7/G8 Group

The G7 Group of major industrialized democracies comprises Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the United States. The Group of Eight (G8) includes Russia. Their Heads of Government meet annually at the G7/G8 Summit to discuss areas of global concern.

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative

An initiative launched by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1996 to provide debt relief to the poorest countries. Revised in 1999 to deliver twice as much debt relief as the original initiative.

Humanitarian Assistance

Comprises disaster relief, food aid, refugee relief and disaster preparedness. It generally involves the provision of material aid including food, medical care and personnel as well as advice to save and preserve lives during emergency situations and in the immediate post- emergency rehabilitation phase.

Income Groups

A classification of aid recipient countries by income groups, based on Gross National Income per capita figures in 2009 according to these thresholds:

  • low income group: countries with a Gross National Income per capita in 2009 of below $995;
  • lower middle income group: countries with a Gross National Income per capita in 2009 of $996 to $3945;
  • upper middle income group: countries with a Gross National Income per capita in 2009 of $3946 to $12195;
  • high income group: countries with a Gross National Income per capita in 2009 of $12196 or above.


A number or ratio derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time. These can reveal information on Millennium Goal progress by studying collected data.

International Monetary Fund

Aims to promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements; to foster economic growth and high levels of employment; and to provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance of payments adjustment.


Stands for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Established in 1988, its first report provided the initial scientific evidence of climate change.


A state of being surrounded on all sides by land, with no direct access to large bodies of water.

Least Developed Country

Those countries assessed as having particularly severe long-term constraints to development due to two main criteria: economic diversity and quality of life.

Maternal Health

The health of a mother during the pregnancy and birth.

Millennium Development Goals

A set of eight international development goals for 2015, adopted by the international community in the UN Millennium Declaration in September 2000, and endorsed by International Monetary Fund, World Bank and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Multilateral Aid

Aid channeled through international bodies for use in or on behalf of aid recipient countries. Aid channeled through multilateral agencies is regarded as bilateral where DFID specifies the use and destination of the funds.

Non-governmental organizations (NGO)

These are private non-profit making bodies which are active in development work. To qualify for official support UK non governmental organizations must be registered charities.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)

A group of 30 industrial countries promoting growth and high employment among its members, fostering international trade and contributing to global economic development.


Not having the monetary resources to meet basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter.

Poverty Reduction Strategies

Prepared by developing country governments in collaboration with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund as well as civil society and development partners, they describe the country's macroeconomic, structural and social policies and program to promote growth and reduce poverty, as well as associated external financing needs and major sources of financing.

Program Aid

Financial assistance specifically to fund (i) a range of imports, or (ii) an integrated program of support for a particular sector, or (iii) discrete elements of a recipient's budgetary expenditure. Usually provided as part of a World Bank/International Monetary Fund coordinated structural adjustment program.

Regional Development Banks

Banks that serve particular regions, for example the African Development Bank or the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Tied Aid

The practice of restricting how donated money can be used in a particular country. In most cases, donors tie aid by requiring that the money is used to pay for goods and services in one particular country rather than allowing a free market to occur.


Encompassing the whole world, across the globe.

World Bank

Refers to the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association. Three other agencies are also part of the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes.

World Trade Organization

An organization that ensures that trade between nations flows as smoothly, predictably and freely as possible. To achieve this, the World Trade Organization provides and regulates the legal framework which governs world trade. Decisions in the World Trade Organization are typically taken by consensus among the 146 member countries and are ratified by members' parliaments.



EH Department for International Development