Terms You Should Know About Asthma

Inhaler

Action Plan

A written set of directions or a chart that tells you what to do if asthma symptoms occur, depending on their severity and preventive care.

Albuterol

An asthma medication (see short-acting beta-agonist).

Allergic Asthma

A chronic, inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by wheezing, breathing difficulties, coughing, chest tightness, caused by an allergic reaction to an inhaled allergen, rather than an irritant or other non-allergy factor. (See "non-allergic asthma" for more information.)

Allergen

A substance that triggers an allergic reaction, such as dust mites, animal dander, mold, and cockroaches.

Allergist

A doctor that has specific training in the care of asthma, who may be more familiar with current clinical guidelines than a pediatrician or general practitioner.

Alveoli

Tiny air sacs where oxygen is transferred into your lungs and carbon dioxide waste enters the airways in order to be exhaled out.

Asthma

A chronic, inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by wheezing, breathing difficulties, coughing, chest tightness, and other possible symptoms. People with asthma have very sensitive airways that are constantly on the verge of over-reacting to asthma triggers.

Beta-Agonist

Asthma drugs that relax the muscles around the bronchial tubes ("bronchodilators"), opening the airways or helping keep them open. There are two main types. Long-acting beta-agonists are taken every day to prevent symptoms, often in combination with a steroid, whereas short-acting ones (such as albuterol) are used for quick relief of symptoms during an asthma episode/attack.

Bronchial Tubes

Airways in the lungs. There is one major branch going into each lung, and these then divide into many smaller branches.

Bronchioles

The smallest airways in the lungs.

Bronchoconstriction

when the muscles that wrap the airways begin to tighten, pinching the airways closed.

Bronchodilators

Drugs that relax the muscles around the airways, thus opening the airways up, some of which are used for quick relief of symptoms during an asthma attack, whereas others are taken daily to prevent symptoms.

Control Drug

A drug that some people take on a daily basis to prevent asthma symptoms and asthma attacks.

Corticosteroids

The most common and effective drugs used for long-term daily control of asthma (prevention of symptoms). They are most frequently inhaled using a metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler, or nebulizer. Corticosteroids primarily decrease or prevent inflammation.

Cromolyn

An anti-inflammatory drug that may be used on a daily basis to prevent symptoms of asthma.

Dry Powder Inhaler

A small device similar to a metered dose inhaler, but where the drug is in powder form. The patient exhales out a full breath, places the lips around the mouthpiece, then quickly breathes in the powder.

Immunotherapy

A series of shots that help build up the immune system's tolerance to an asthma trigger.

Ipratropium Bromide

A bronchodilator sometimes used for quick relief of asthma symptoms, often for people who do not tolerate beta-agonists. It is also used for people whose asthma is triggered by beta-blocker medication for the heart.

Leukotriene Modifiers

A class of medications used in asthma and allergies to block the action of leukotrienes in the body and prevent the common symptoms of an allergic reactions and asthma. They are "control" medications in the form of tablets for patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma. For mild asthma, they are sometimes considered as an alternative to inhaled steroids. For moderate asthma, they may be considered as a supplement to inhaled steroids in place of long-acting beta agonists.

Metered Dose Inhaler

The most common asthma device that allows you to inhale a specific amount of medicine (a "metered dose"). It’s a metal canister, which keeps the medication under pressure, and a plastic sleeve which helps to release the medication. The pressure in the canister propels the particles toward your throat where you can inhale them.

Nebulizer

A device that creates a mist out of your asthma drug, which makes it easy and pleasant to breath the drug into the lungs. The drug is placed into a small cup. Air from a small compressor converts the drug into an aerosol mist, which travels through a hose with a mouthpiece attached. By taking slow, deep breaths, the medicine is delivered into your lungs.

Nedocromil Sodium

An inhaled medication that may be used on a daily basis to treat inflammation in the airways and prevent asthma attacks.

Non-Allergic Asthma

A chronic, inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by wheezing, breathing difficulties, coughing, chest tightness, wherein these symptoms are caused by an inhaled irritant or other non-allergy factor; when these symptoms are not caused by allergic reactions.

Peak Flow

A measurement of how well you can blow air out of your lungs. If you have asthma, you can't blow air out as well because of restricted airways, and your peak flow values drop.

Relief Drug

A drug used as needed to relieve asthma symptoms during asthma attacks. Also called a quick-relief or rescue drug.

Rescue drug: A quick-relief drug.

Sinusitis

An inflammation or infection of one or more sinuses which are hollow air spaces located around the nose and eyes.

Spacer

Works with your metered-dose inhaler (MDI) to deliver medication more easily and effectively, and can reduce side effects. When you use an MDI by itself, more of the medicine is left in your mouth and throat, wasting your dose and causing an unpleasant aftertaste. Also known as holders, spacers hold the medicine between you and the MDI, allowing you to inhale it slowly and more completely.

Spirometry

A test for diagnosing asthma that uses a spirometer to measure the maximum volume you can exhale after breathing in as much as you can. Small spirometers are available for home use, but peak flow meters are often more appropriate.

Steroids

See Corticosteroids.

Theophylline

This drug is sometimes used to help control mild asthma, especially to prevent nighttime symptoms, by relaxing the muscles of your bronchial tubes.

Sources:
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America
Asthma Assistant
Everyday Health