Terms You Should Know About Immigration

Immigration

Adverse (or Disparate) Impact

A term used to describe a substantially different rate of selection in hiring, promotion, transfer, training or in other employment decisions which works to the disadvantage of the members of the protected group or gender.

Alien

Any person who is not a citizen or national of the U.S. of America; a foreigner.

Anti-Semitism

Hostility toward or discrimination against Jews as a religious, ethnic, or racial group

Applicant

An individual applying for visa, change of status or citizenship.

Citizenship

Normally citizenship describes the country that a person is born in. However, a person can change citizenship in a process called naturalization.

Deportation

Deportation is the legal act of removing an alien from the U.S. after he or she has been found removable for infringing the immigration laws. Deportation is ordered by an immigration judge without any kind of punishment.

Discrimination

An act that is committed on the basis of prejudice or bias. Employment discrimination generally refers to any employment practice or decision that intentionally or unintentionally results in the unequal treatment of an individual or group on a basis other than job-related reasons

Disparate (or Differential) Treatment

A theory of discrimination in which an individual is treated less favorably than his/her similarly situated peers because of gender, race, etc.

Diversity

The range of dimensions which describe human differences. The primary dimensions of diversity are age, physical abilities/qualities, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation.

Equal Employment Opportunity

Refers to a body of laws which requires all employers to allow all persons to work and advance on the basis of merit, ability, and potential without regard to race, color, religion, national origin/ancestry, age (40 and above), marital status, gender, disability, disabled veterans, veterans of the Vietnam era, certain medical conditions, sexual orientation or other unalterable condition.

Ethnic Group

Individuals classed according to common traits, traditions, and customs. The ethnic group which most closely reflects the individual's recognition in his/or her community should be used for reporting purposes.

Green Card

Officially known as a Permanent Resident Card, provides evidence of lawful permanent resident status in the U.S. It allows a foreign national to live, work legally, travel abroad and return to the U.S., and allows card holders to apply for U.S. citizenship after a certain period of time.

Immigrant

Any person who is not a citizen of the U.S. and who lives in the U.S. under lawfully recognized and legally recorded permanent residence as an immigrant.

Islamophobia

Refers to unfounded fear of and hostility towards Islam. Such fear and hostility leads to discriminations against Muslims, exclusion of Muslims from mainstreams political or social process, stereotyping, the presumption of guilt by association, and finally hate crimes

Labor Force

The US Department of Commerce generally defines the civilian labor force as all civilians 16 years old and over who were employed at the time of the Census, or who were unemployed but looking for work, or available to accept a job.

Minority

people who are protected by State and Federal law as a member of the following groups: Black, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaskan Native.

Naturalization

process by which U.S. citizenship is give to a foreign citizen or national after he or she fulfills the requirements established by Congress in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA).

Permanent Resident

Any person who is not a citizen of the U.S. but who lives here under lawfully recognized and legally recorded permanent residence as an immigrant. It is also called Permanent Resident Alien, Resident Alien Permit Holder, and Green Card Holder.

Quota system

The system used to limit the number of visas available to each country for particular visa classifications.

Refugee

Anybody who is incapable or reluctant to go back to his or her country of nationality while they are in another country because she will be persecuted or fears being persecuted. The reasons for persecution or fear of persecution have to be the foreigner’s race, religion, nationality, membership in a unique social group, or political views. Refugees are entitled to adjust to the legal permanent resident category after one year of continuous presence in the U.S.

Religious Discrimination

An employment rule or policy that requires an individual to either abandon a fundamental precept of his/her religion or to relinquish an employment opportunity. Employers are required by law to make reasonable efforts to accommodate religious needs of the employees and applicants.

Unlawful Discrimination

An act that is committed on the basis of prejudice or bias. Unlawful discrimination generally refers to any employment practice or decision which intentionally or unintentionally results in the unequal treatment of an individual or group on a basis their protected status (i.e. age, physical abilities/qualities, ethnicity, gender, race, and sexual orientation).

Underrepresented

Having fewer protected class employees in a job classification than would be reasonably expected by their availability in the relevant labor force.

Visa

A document that grants the holder the right to apply for entry to the U.S., but does not grant the visa holder the right to enter the U.S. Entry can be refused at the port of entry. Immigration inspectors decide admittance, based on duration of stay and conditions in the U.S. at a port of entry.

Sources:

Adversity.net

Council on American-Islamic Relations

United States Immigration Support

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services